Quick Reference Guide
The following examples illustrate citations using the author-date version of the Chicago referencing system. Each example of a reference list entry is accompanied by an example of a corresponding parenthetical citation in the text.
Sears, John. 2011. Stephen King’s Gothic. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.
(Sears 2011, 99–100)
Two or more authors
King, Stephen, and Peter Straub. 2007. The Talisman. London: Hodder.
(King and Straub 2007, 52)
For four or more authors
List all of the authors in the reference list; in the text, list only the first author, followed by et al. (“and others”):
(King et al. 2010)
Editor, translator, or compiler instead of author
Simpson, Philip L., and Patrick McAleer. eds. 2014. Stephen King’s Contemporary Classics: Reflections on the Modern Master of Horror. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield.
(Simpson and McAleer, xi)
Editor, translator, or compiler in addition to author
Reuber, Alexandra. 2014. “In Search of the Lost Object in a Bad Place: Stephen King’s Contemporary Gothic” Stephen King’s Contemporary Classics: Reflections on the Modern Master of Horror. Edited by Philip L. Simpson and Patrick McAleer. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield.
(Reuber 2014, 101–116)
Chapter or other part of a book
Badley, Linda C. 1987. “Love and Death in the American Car: Stephen King’s Auto-Erotic Horror” In The Gothic World of Stephen King: Landscape of Nightmares, edited by Gary Hoppenstand and Ray B. Browne, 84–94. Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowling Green University Popular Press.
(Badley 1987, 84)
Chapter of an edited volume originally published elsewhere (as in primary sources)
Lant, Kathleen Margaret, 1998.. “The Rape of Constant Reader: Stephen King’s Construction of the Female Reader and Violation of the Female Body in Misery.” In Imagining the Worst: Stephen King and the Representation of Women edited by Kathleen Margaret Lant and Teresa Thompson. Connecticut: Greenwood Press. Originally published in The Journal of Popular Culture, Spring 1997, Volume 30, Issue 4. 89-114.
(Lant 1998, 196)
Preface, foreword, introduction, or similar part of a book
King, Stephen. 2011. Introduction to Lord of the Flies, by William Golding, v–ix. London: Faber and Faber.
(King 2011, v-vi)
Book published electronically
If a book is available in more than one format, cite the version you consulted. For books consulted online, list a URL; include an access date only if one is required by your publisher or discipline. If no fixed page numbers are available, you can include a section title or a chapter or other number.
King, Stephen. 2011. From a Buick 8. London: Hodder. Kindle edition.
Browning, Mark, 2011. Stephen King on the Small Screen. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu.
(Browning, chap. 3, Needful Things)
Article in a print journal
In the text, list the specific page numbers consulted, if any. In the reference list entry, list the page range for the whole article.
Davenport, Stephen. “From Big Sticks to Talking Sticks: Family, Work and Masculinity in Stephen King’s The Shining”, Men and Masculinities 2; 308-329
(Davenport 2000, 320)
Article in an online journal
Bauer, Gillian. 2016. “Christ, What a Dead Little Place: Compulsive Consumption in Stephen King’s ‘Salem’s Lot” Studies in Gothic Fiction 4.1/2: 18-29. Accessed August 31 2016. http://studiesingothicfiction.weebly.com/uploads/2/2/8/8/22885250/sgf_4.1-2_full_newdesign_amended.pdf.
(Bauer 2016, 26)
Article in a newspaper or popular magazine
Newspaper and magazine articles may be cited in running text (“As Sheryl Stolberg and Robert Pear noted in a New York Times article on February 27, 2010, . . .”), and they are commonly omitted from a reference list. The following examples show the more formal versions of the citations. If you consulted the article online, include a URL; include an access date only if your publisher or discipline requires one. If no author is identified, begin the citation with the article title.
Gaiman, Neil. 2012. “The King and I.” The Sunday Times, April 8.
Dominus, Susan. 2013. “Stephen King’s Family Business.” New York Times Magazine, July 31. Accessed August 31 2016. .http://www.nytimes.com/2013/08/04/magazine/stephen-kings-family-business.html?_r=0
(Gaiman 2012, 68)
Mina, Denise. 2016. “Virtual Depravity.” Review of End of Watch, by Stephen King. New York Times, June 12, Sunday Book Review. http://www.nytimes.com/2016/06/12/books/review/stephen-kings-end-of-watch.html
Thesis or dissertation
Palko, Amy. 2009. “Charting Habitus: Stephen King, the Author Protagonist and the Field of Literary Production.” PhD diss., University of Stirling.
Paper presented at a meeting or conference
Gregory, Alan, and Dawn Stobbart. 2015. “The Survival of a President: Rewritten American Histories and the Failed Assassination of John F. Kennedy in Stephen King’s 11/22/63” Paper presented at Sideways in Time: Alternate History and Counterfactual Narratives at the University of Liverpool, March 30–31.
(Gregory and Stobbart 2015)
A citation to website content can often be limited to a mention in the text (“On April 1, 2016, the essay collection, Hearts in Suspension, was announced on Stephen King’s official website. . .”). If a more formal citation is desired, it may be styled as in the examples below. Because such content is subject to change, include an access date or, if available, a date that the site was last modified. In the absence of a date of publication, use the access date or last-modified date as the basis of the citation.
Stephen King. 2016. “Hearts in Suspension (Essay Collection).” Last modified April 1. http://stephenking.com/future_works.html
Stephen and Tabitha King Foundation. 2016. “Guidelines” Accessed August 31: http://www.stkfoundation.org/Guidelines.aspx
(Stephen King 2016)
(King Foundation 2016)
Blog entry or comment
Blog entries or comments may be cited in running text (“In a comment posted to The International Gothic Association Postgraduate Blog on November 22, 2013, . . .”), and they are commonly omitted from a reference list. If a reference list entry is needed, cite the blog post there but mention comments in the text only. (If an access date is required, add it before the URL)
McRobert, Neil. 2013. “DOCTOR ZZZZZZZZZZ: The King is Dead?” The International Gothic Association Postgraduate Blog, November 22. http://www.iga.stir.ac.uk/showblog.php?id=127.
Darabont, F., et al. (2004). The Shawshank Redemption. Burbank, CA, Warner Bros. Pictures
Remedy Entertainment (2010). Alan Wake, Xbox 360. Finland: Microsoft Studios
(Remedy Entertainment 2010)
Acronyms, Abbreviations and Cultural-Specific References
- All acronyms should be spelled out at the first mention and cultural specific references explained.
- Abbreviations such as ‘e.g.’ and ‘i.e.’ may not be used.
- “Ibid” can be used for repeat references (ibid: 22).
- Foreign words and/or phrases (excluding proper or place names) should be italicised with correct symbols.